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The Ottoman PeriodThe Ottoman Period The Mamelukes' dominion (1250-1517) was swept away by the Ottoman Turks. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilt the old ramparts and walls, which encircle the Old City to this day. After his death, the Ottoman empire went into decline and only in the nineteenth century did Jerusalem grow and develop again. The Jewish settlers, who became the majority of the city's population, started to develop areas west of the walled city. In 1917, Jerusalem was taken by General Allenby and his British troops.